Michelle Stock

Associate Professor of Applied Social Psychology
Room 306
Address: 2125 G St NW
Washington, District Of Columbia 20052



Current Research

Dr. Stock focuses her research on applying social-psychological theories to the study of risky health cognitions and behaviors, including substance use, sexual behaviors, and UV exposure. Her experimental and survey research focuses on the application of dual-processing models, in particular the Prototype-Willingness model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), to provide a framework for understanding the cognitive (both heuristic and reasoned) constructs and situational factors that affect health decisions. The research conducted in her lab can be split into three main areas:

1) the relation among risk behavior, social comparison, and perceptions of risk;

2) applying social psychological theory and the Prototype-Willingness model to health interventions;

3) examining the relation between racial discrimination and risky health cognitions and behaviors as well as risk and protective factors that may help explain and that may reduce this relation.


Ph.D. 2007, Iowa State University


*Litt, D.M., Stock, M.L., & Gibbons, F.X. (in press). The impact of peer and sibling substance use on adolescent substance use cognitions and behaviors: Do social comparison tendencies matter? British Journal of Health Psychology

*Walsh, L.A., Stock, M.L., *Peterson, L.M., & Gerrard, M. (2014). Women’s sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 553-563.

Waters, E.A., Kincaid, C., Kaufman, A.R., Stock, M.L., *Peterson, L.M., Muscanell, N.L., & Guadagno, R.E. (in press). Concerns about unintended negative consequences of informing the public about multifactorial risks may be premature for young adult smokers. British Journal of Health Psychology.

Gibbons, F.X., Kingsbury, J.H., Weng, C-Y., Gerrard, M., Cutrona, C.E., Wills, T.A., & Stock, M.L. (2014). Effects of racial discrimination on health status and health behavior: A differential mediation hypothesis. Health Psychology, 33, 11-19.

Stock, M.L., *Litt, D.M., *Arlt, V., *Peterson, L.M., & *Sommerville, J. (2013). The Prototype/Willingness model, academic versus health-risk information, and risk cognitions associated with nonmedical prescription stimulant use among college students. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 490-507.

Dodge, T., Stock, M.L., & *Litt, D.M. (2013). Judgments about illegal performance enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive or both? Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 662-971.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X., *Peterson, L.M., & Gerrard, M. (2013). The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 543-550.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Houlihan, A. E., Weng, C, Lorenz, F.O., & Simons, R.L. (2013). Racial identification, racial composition, and substance use vulnerability among African American adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 237-247.

Stock, M.L., *Peterson, L.M., Houlihan, A.E., & *Walsh, L. A. (2013). Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults’ oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 95-102.

Gerrard, M., Stock, M.L., Roberts, M., Gibbons, F.X. & O’Hara, R.E., Weng, C-Y, & Wills, T.A. (2012). Coping with racial discrimination: the role of substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 550-560.

*Litt, D.M., Stock, M.L., & Lewis, M. (2012). Drinking to fit in: Examining the need to belong as a moderator of perceived best friend alcohol use and related risk cognitions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34, 313-321.

*Walsh, L. A. & Stock, M.L. (2012). Masculinity, UV photography, and college men's sun protection cognitions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 431-442.

Gibbons, F.X., O'Hara, R.E., Stock, M.L., Gerrard, M., & Wills, T.A. (2012). The erosive effects of racism: Reduced self-control mediates the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use in African American adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1089-1104.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X., *Walsh, L.A., & Gerrard, M. (2011). Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1349-1361.

*Litt, D.M., & Stock, M.L. (2011). Adolescent alcohol related cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 708-713.

Gibbons, F.G., Etcheverry, P.E., Stock, M.L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C., Kiviniemi, M. & O’Hara, R. (2010). Exploring the link between racial discrimination and substance use: What mediates and what buffers? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 785-901.

Stock, M.L., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Dykstra, J.L., Mahler, H.I.M., *Walsh, L.A., Kulik, J.A. & Weng, C-Y. (2009). Sun protection intervention for highway workers: Long-term efficacy of UV photography and skin cancer information on men’s protective cognitions and behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 225-236.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Houlihan, A.E., & Stock, M.L., & Pomery, E.A. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28, 29-61.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Stock, M.L., Houlihan, A.E., & Dykstra, J. L. (2006). Temperament, self-regulation, and the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior. In D. de Ridder & J. de Wit (Eds.), Self-regulation in health behavior (pp. 97-117). W. Sussex, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Lane, D.J., & Stock, M.L. (2005). Social comparison and smoking cessation: Comparison level predicts success for adult smokers. Health Psychology, 90, 124-131. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.6.623

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Stock, M.L., Vande Lune, L., & Cleveland, M. J. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30 (4), 305-318.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Vande Lune, L., Pexa, N.A. & Gano (Stock), M.L. (2002). Adolescents’ substance-related risk perceptions: Antecedents, mediators, and consequences. Risk Decision and Policy, 7, 175 - 191.

*current or former student